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Charts: Income & Educational Attainment Over 25 Years

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WSJ: "The past 25 years have seen a growing split between households with different levels of educational attainment. The median household led by someone with a master’s degree earns $7,655 more per year than in 1991. Those with some college, but no degree, earn $7,768 less and those with a high-school diploma but no further education earn $6,316 less." (U.S. Poverty and Income Inequality in 9 Charts - Real Time Economics)

 

Charts: OECD Report Shows US Lagging On Education Spending

Screen Shot 2016-09-16 at 12.21.08 PMPBS NewsHour: Are U.S. children getting the best education for the dollar? 

Numbers: School Closings Are Neither Popular Nor Common

Closings by year
A recent PDK International poll reported that American's don't like it when schools get closed. They much prefer troubled schools get new leadership and/or staff. Eighty-four percent of the public prefers fixing struggling schools while just 14 percent want to close them.
 
But school closings, while they can be traumatic for students and educators who have remained at a school, aren't as common as you may think -- and even when they happen they don't necessarily mean a building is being shuttered. As noted in this recent opinion piece, the "nuclear" option happens only 1-2 percent of the time, usually after an all-hands-on-deck effort to turn things around and/or dwindling enrollment. 
 
According to the NCES Fast Facts page, roughly 1,-2,000 of the nation's 99,000 schools have been closed over the years, fluctuating from a low of 1,2000 to a high of 2,200. And of course schools being closed doesn't necessarily mean that a school building is being shuttered. New schools are opened on the same site, or other schools within the same facility are enlarged.
 

Quotes: Stop Thinking White Parents Will Choose To Integrate Schools

Quotes2All of the choice-based reform efforts that they’ve come up with over the last 20 years have been designed to bring back all the white people who left after Brown v. Board. But the irony is that, if [districts] keep relying on choice, they’re going to be set up for failure because white people will not enroll their children in schools unless they’re already [predominantly] white.

-- Natalie Hopkinson, a black parent and journalist in The Atlantic (How Parents Can Help Desegregate Schools)

People: McKesson, Packnett, Goldrick-Rab, O'Leary, & Desmond

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This year's POLITICO 50 includes almost a half-dozen education-related influencers, including Sara Goldrick-Rab, Deray McKesson, Brittany Packnett, Matthew Desmond, and Ann 'Oleary. Read all about them. Desmond is the person who wrote the book about the lives of poor black and white residents of Milwaukee, who are regularly forced to move from one expensive apartment to another. 
 
 

Charts: Teachers Really Hate Those Interactive Whiteboards Everybody Bought

chart showing technologies currently in use by survey participants

According to a new survey of teachers reported in THE Journal, interactive whiteboards were the third most-hated category among teachers. (First and second most-hated were mobile phones and desktops.) However, 68 percent of respondents said those are in use at their schools.

Quotes: Gladwell On Charters, Scale, & Timelines

Quotes2You cannot turn around centuries of lack of advantage in a generation. Nobody's ever done that in the history of mankind... We've got to sustain this for 30, 40, 50 years if we're going to see some real change. 

- Malcolm Gladwell via OZY (Why Malcolm Gladwell Is Optimistic About Charter Schools)

Books: How Repeated Evictions Impact Students' Lives

image from www.motherjones.com
Fans of high-quality nonfiction and those concerned about education and segregation should check out Matthew Desmond's pretty amazing book, Evicted, out earlier this year.

Focusing on the lives of poor white and black residents of one midsized city (Milwaukee), but making a national case, Desmond shows why poor people tend to move more often, but largely stay within confined geographic areas.

"There is an enormous amount of pain and poverty in this rich land,’ argues American sociologist Desmond in this brilliant book about housing and the lives of eight families in Milwaukee. (Via The Guardian)

The educational impacts of children whose families are moving frequently aren't the focus of the book, but they're ever-present: Lost sleep, changes of schools, going hungry, lack of heat or electricity, and constant worry. Families with children are much more likely to be evicted, notes this Mother Jones article.

The book also shows how academics and policymakers have missed much of what's going on by focusing on relatively small parts of the problem (federal housing vouchers and public housing) rather than larger ones (the private market) most poor renters inhabit.

Last but not least, Evicted shows that it's not just slumlords who are culpable for the deplorable, exploitative situation. The legal system, law enforcement, and even social support agencies all play a role in creating and perpetuating things -- and tolerating what's clearly intolerable. 

AM News: State Testing Study, Detroit Contract Agreement, & More

In Detroit, schools and teachers reach pact ow.ly/dQBd303YzYe

Parents Sue After New York State Denies Money to ‘Failing’ Schools - The New York Times ow.ly/ksdB303YzWu

State Testing Disruptions Likely Produced Dips and Gains in Student Scores, Study Says - Market Brief ow.ly/rOjU303XayY

An Effective but Exhausting Alternative to High School Suspensions nytimes.com/2016/09/11/mag…

Christie blasts teachers union, calls for longer school year during back-to-school event burlingtoncountytimes.com/news/local/chr…

N.J. Gov. Chris Christie Calls Teachers Union 'Mafia,' Signs Education Bills blogs.edweek.org/edweek/state_e…

CTU chief Lewis balks at CPS' request to stop pension benefits | Chicago Sun-Times ow.ly/Z511303XNAI 

On Eve Of Court Hearing, WA Lawmakers Get An Earful On School Funding kuow.org/post/eve-court…

Final ESSA supplanting regs seem to offer a compromise cabinetreport.com/human-resource…
 
Chicago Schools Open Up With Fewer Staff wbez.org/shows/wbez-new…
 
New evidence that summer programs can make a difference for poor children  washingtonpost.com/local/educatio…
 

Quotes: Creating Lots Of Good Teachers Vs. Firing A Few Bad Ones

Quotes2Creating better teachers is more complicated — and more expensive — than claiming we can drastically improve education with pink slips. But in fact, pretty great teachers can be made

- Karin Klein in LA Times Opinion Page (Why firing bad teachers isn't nearly as important as creating good ones)

Numbers: Education Funding Goes Down Even As Enrollments Go Up

Curious why states and districts are so upset with the notion of having to reallocate funding in order to remain eligible for ESSA? According to FiveThirtyEight, state funding has gone down nearly 7 percent since 2008, and student spending over all has gone down over 2 percent during the same period -- even as enrollments have increased (a bit).

Morning Listen: Helping Low-Income Kids Make It To Graduation

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Listen to this new hourlong audio documentary from APM Reports (formerly known as American RadioWorks, about "what kids are up against at the growing number of high-poverty schools in America." And look forward to a September 20 event in DC.

AM News: FLOTUS, EdSec, Lead Exposure Research, & More

U.S. education chief to visit New Orleans, Baton Rouge nola.com/education/inde…

Top Clinton advisor Anne O'Leary splits with Goodwin Liu - SFChronicle pllqt.it/4wPwvC

Michelle Obama visits the District’s Howard University with host of NBC’s ‘Late Night’ wpo.st/3g5w1 

Small reductions in children’s lead exposure dramatically improve educational outcomes - Vox pllqt.it/rRZvJY

In Austin Public Schools, a Clear Divide on AP Test Passing Rates | KUT ow.ly/hNfy303Ofrd

Room for compromise as teachers strike vote nears | Chicago Reporter ow.ly/wKyT303P7b0

N.J. triples weight of PARCC results in teacher evaluations | NJ.comow.ly/Zbz4303PQwH

New Jersey Teachers Union Ordered to Court Over Benefit Negotiations blogs.edweek.org/edweek/teacher…
 
Under New Policy for Homeless Families, Children Can Miss Less School nyti.ms/2bFMpwq
 
Chicago Public Schools Re-opens South Side Neighborhood High School wbez.org/shows/wbez-new…

Welcome to first grade! Please bring two reams of copy paper with you kuow.org/post/welcome-f…

Morning Video: Why Ohio Leads Nation In Poverty-Segregated School Districts

Above, watch a clean-shaven Cory Turner segment about how Ohio and other non-Southern states have neighboring districts with wildly different poverty levels. 

Or, watch this Emerson Collective video segment about TFA's recruitment of undocumented college students to become classroom teachers.  

Maps: Syrian Refugee Students Placed In Mid-Sized Cities (Boise, Worcester)

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This NYT map and accompanying story (Here’s Where They Went) shows the 231 towns and cities where the 10,000 Syrian refugees accepted into the United States have been settled over the past four years. 

These numbers are tiny compared to what other nations are doing currently or what the US has done in the past with Cuban and Vietnamese refugees, points out the Times.

Big cities like NYC, Chicago, and LA haven't been among the leaders compared to affordable mid-sized citeis. "Boise, Idaho, has accepted more refugees than New York and Los Angeles combined; Worcester, Mass., has taken in more than Boston."

Students in Lancaster, PA are suing the district for providing an inadequate education. School districts on Long Island, NY are being monitored to ensure that they enroll and serve refugee students appropriately. 

"The suit claims district administrators routinely sent older refugee students to a "disciplinary school" that subjected them to bullying, intense security protocols and an accelerated learning program that runs counter to conventional wisdom on the subject."

In Syria, schools have been bombed, forcing children to attend classes in bunkers or to forego an education entirely. For more on the challenge of schooling Syrian refugee children, click here.

Morning Video: "Cultural Competency" Teacher Prep Program Includes Homestay

On PBS last night, a segment about a small seven year-old program in Chicago that attempts to prepare teachers (mostly white) for kids and communities they're likely to teach in (mostly black and brown) -- including a cross-cultural homestay program. Roughly half of Chicago teachers are white, while less than 10 percent of Chicago students are.

AM News: Loosened Teacher Licensing, Vergara Followup, Inadequate Refugee Education, & More

States Loosen Teacher-Licensure Rules Amid Shortage Fears blogs.edweek.org/edweek/teacher…

Despite Vergara Ruling, Teacher-Tenure Battles Set to Heat Up - Education Week ow.ly/WfyH303KTSm

FBI raids home of ex-College Board official in probe of SAT leak | Reuters ow.ly/XgaS303Jlyn

Staunch City Hall critic abandons appeal & resigns as principal of top Chicago school - Chicago Magazine ow.ly/TgME303K1Go

ACLU claims Lancaster PA denies refugees proper education | PhillyVoice pllqt.it/OUxLlL

Finally, a disturbing trend in education shows signs of reversal - LA Times ow.ly/R0xk303KRDj

Why was it the ACLU, not charter school overseers, who called out 'illegal' behaviors? scpr.org/news/2016/08/3…

Mental Health In Schools: A Hidden Crisis Affecting Millions Of Students wamu.org/news/16/08/31/…
 
Why did Washington's schools get an F in recent test results? kuow.org/post/why-did-w…
 
Lead Tests on New York City Schools’ Water May Have Masked Scope of Risk - The New York Times ow.ly/bOEB303KVB0

In Chicago, preparing teachers for the classrooms that need them most - NewsHour  feedproxy.google.com/~r/NewshourHea…

Charts: Poll Shows Majority Of Americans & Public School Parents Oppose Opting Out Of Standardize Tests

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"Fifty-five percent of public school parents oppose allowing children to sit out standardized tests. Overall, the demographic groups most opposed to the opt-out movement are black people (67 percent) and senior citizens (68 percent)." Results from #PDKPoll via Chalkbeat.

Morning Video: What A Welcoming School Looks Like

Via Larry Ferlazzo: I Wonder How Many Students Experience School As It’s Illustrated In This Video?. The video was apparently produced by the Rollins Center for Language & Literacy at the Atlanta Speech School.

 

Quotes: How The Recession Might Help Explain Low-Income Kids' Progress

Quotes2One likely explanation for the across-the-board increase in parents’ investing in their young children’s learning is that parents today are just far more aware of the unique importance of the early childhood years in shaping their children’s development... It also may be that the increase in parent-child interactions among low-income families has been driven, in part, by the shift of low-income children out of preschool programs and into parental care during the economic recession.

-- Daphna Bassok, a co-author of the study and professor at the University of Virginia (Despite Growing Income Inequality, Learning Gaps Between Rich And Poor Kids Are Actually Closing)

AM News: Narrowing Gaps, Poll Time, Homework Debate, & More

Surprise! Amid rising inequality, one school gap is narrowing scpr.org/news/2016/08/2…

Low-income kindergartners are closing the achievement gap, reversing a decades-old trend washingtonpost.com/news/education…

Trump’s ‘Education Week’ Calculation: A New Pivot to Woo Reluctant Republicans and Swing State Minorities | The 74 ow.ly/qVKk303FYlU
 
Poll: Rising Share of Americans Like Their Local Schools ... But There's a Catch blogs.edweek.org/edweek/campaig…
 
Americans Like Their Schools Just Fine — But Not Yours - NPR ow.ly/aWm7303FWWM
 
Dozens of Baltimore County Schools Closed for Heat abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/d…
 
A new school year, and a 204th school, as enrollment surges in Maryland district washingtonpost.com/local/educatio…
 
As Students Return to School, Debate About the Amount of Homework Rages nytimes.com/2016/08/25/us/…
 
4 Years After Tragedy, A New Sandy Hook Elementary Prepares To Open Its Doors npr.org/sections/thetw…
 
From Humans of New York to Obama's Office: How a Principal Built a School - NYT nzzl.us/0kspD5L
 
Buckeye, Ariz., HS Student Wears 'Black Lives Matter' Shirt, Told to Change - EBONY nzzl.us/zz58IEK
 

Charts: Teacher Pay Gap Keeps Going Up - Now 23 Percent

According to a new report from EPI, teachers’ weekly wages are now 23 percent lower than those of other college graduates.

Maps: Primary School Teachers Top Some State Job Lists (But Robots...)

Npr-map-most-common-job-2014

The most common profession in many states is truck driver -- a group that could soon lose their jobs to robots, according to Vox. But the most common job in few states including Florida, Alaska and some in New England is primary school teacher -- a notoriously low-paying but abundant job. No news yet on robot primary school teachers. But it's probably coming soon. 

Events: Lots Of Education Discussion At Minority Journalists' Conference

There's lots of education-related panels at the conference in DC going on this week. Check it all out here or scroll through the #NABJNAHJ16 hashtag.

Campaign 2016: Black Kids 500% More Likely To Die From Asthsma

Quotes: Wealthier White Parents Want One Thing, Wealthier Black Parents Another

Quotes2I found middle class and affluent white families organizing to limit access, taking the good teachers, in the principal’s office daily advocating that ‘my kid gets the good programs.’ Wealthy Black families would rather pay their money and send kids to private schools.

- CUNY professor L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy in EWA via Education Post (We Can't Keep Ignoring the Suburbs and the Black People That Live in Them)

Morning Video: Advanced Math Classes Too Much For Most?

"Algebra is a core subject for U.S. high school students. But should it be? Author Andrew Hacker believes we should reconsider how math is taught: only 5 percent of the American workforce actually uses math beyond arithmetic, though higher-level classes are widely required." Via PBS NewsHour

Maps: "Island" (Fortress?) School Districts Isolate Kids By Wealth

Campaign 2016: Yes, Schools Today More Segregated Than 1960s

Quotes: Busing -- Fake Issue, Or Real?

Quotes2Without doubt, “busing” became a charged term during the 1970’s, but calling it fake ignores critical facts about its symbolic meaning. For the vast majority of parents it meant loss of control over where their child went to school. 

- David Armor in Brookings (Why busing was definitely not a fake issue)

AM News: Homeless Students, Refugee Kids, Planning Time, & More

U.S. Education Department issues guidelines for supporting homeless students washingtonpost.com/news/education…

Department of Education issues new guidelines for schools aimed at helping homeless students abcn.ws/2aa1XoD

Camp For Young Refugees Teaches U.S. School Skills wnyc.org/story/young-re…

NCTQ ranks the amount of planning time teachers get in 147 districts | Education Dive ow.ly/gBnV302FJtd

As deadline looms, California struggles to finalize new school accountability system edsource.org/2016/as-deadli…

Chicago Teachers Union, district set to begin fresh round of talks - Chicago Tribune ow.ly/89xJ302G7jf

CPS: Special education programs failing despite higher costs - Chicago Tribune ow.ly/l1xd302Ftsb

LA Unified 'soft-launching' parent website for tracking student attendance, graduation progress scpr.org/news/2016/07/2…

Education policy expert tapped as president of state education board  washingtonpost.com/local/educatio…

New York City Is Taking A Big Step To Keep Young Kids In School  huffingtonpost.com/2016/07/26/new…

How the relationship between L.A. Unified and charter schools is 'like a middle school dance' latimes.com/local/educatio…

Note that there will be no news roundup tomorrow, July 29th. Back again on Monday. 

Charts: DC Schools Improving Faster Than Demographics Predict

image from pbs.twimg.com

Morning Video: Is This The Third Reconstruction?

Advances, then backlash. That's the big story of civil rights and inequality, says Washington Monthly's Nancy LeTourneau.

Money: Teaches Make Less Than 60 Percent Of Average Pay For Peers

U.S. teachers earn less than 60% of the average pay for other full-time college-educated workers, according to CAP.

Quotes: School Integration's Many Benefits For Kids

Quotes2When kids are exposed to children who are different than them, whether it’s along racial lines or economic lines, that contact between different groups reduces the willingness of kids to make stereotypes and generalizations about other groups... It also reduces anxiety because a lot of prejudice grows out of fear of the unknown and feeling anxious when you’re around different people because you’ve never had that experience before.

-- Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, assistant professor at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Education in US News (Racial Tensions Flare as Schools Resegregate)

What Does A Social Justice Agenda For Schools Really Look Like?

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Last night on Twitter there was some disagreement about whether folks like Diane Ravitch qualify as "social justice" advocates. Ditto for school reform advocates like, say, Arne Duncan. 

What I learned from the discussion was that people probably have very different notions about what it means to come at improving schools from a social justice perspective. For reform critics like Ravitch, opposing approaches that disempower classroom teachers or put pressure on traditional schools feels like social justice. For reform advocates like Duncan giving parents choices and making schools accountable for results feels like social justice. 

Eager as they might be to claim the mantle of social justice advocacy, my sense is that both sides are wrong, and that the things that they spend most of their time advocating for are not the things that social justice advocates would prioritize for children and communities of color who most need better schools.

It's important to note that changes to education are not central to the current #BlackLivesMatter movement that embodies social justice advocacy in the current era. When education does come up, things like more charters, school desegregation, teacher empowerment, accountability, and student loans are not priority items.

So what would a social justice education agenda look like? Here's a highly imperfect guess at some of the priorities that might be highlighted. There's got to be a better version of this somewhere, but it's a start:

10/ Cops out of schools

    9/ Ending defiance-based suspensions and expulsions

    8/ Anti-racism /cultural awareness training for teachers

    7/ High-quality universal preschool

    6/ Living wages for paras, aides, and early childhood teacher

    5/ Equitable distribution of certified teachers (and payroll costs) among district schools

    4/ Limits on self-segregation of affluent students within neighborhoods and island districts

    3/ Dramatic reduction in local control/property tax-based funding

    2/ Giving parents right to legal action against inadequate education (as with IDEA)

    1/ __________________________________

    Morning Video: Update On XQ

    Via The Seventy Four.

    Charts: Alternative Poverty Rate Not So Bad As Official One

    For years we've been told that poverty has been increasing. So it might not seem like a big deal that Majority Leader Paul Ryan claimed that poverty is worse under Obama earlier this week. At 15 percent, the official measure is high. But the official measure doesn't account for certain public benefits, such as food stamps, notes The Washington Post. An alternative measure "also indicates that a greater share of Americans are poor now than were poor under the Bush or Clinton administrations. Yet the current rate is moderate by historical standards — below its level throughout much of the Reagan administration."

    #EDgif Of The Day: Middle Schoolers Print New Leg For Cute Penguin

    Quotes: Before You Let Your School Go Pokemon Crazy ...

    Quotes2The whole "Pokemon Go will revolutionize education" claims have made me incredibly angry, even though it's a claim that's made about every single new product that ed-tech's early adopters find exciting (and clickbait-worthy)... All this matters for Pokemon Go; all this matters for ed-tech....“Gotta catch ’em all” may be the perfect slogan for consumer capitalism; but it’s hardly a mantra I’m comfortable chanting to push for education transformation. 

    - Audrey Watters in  Hack Education Weekly Newsletter (HEWN) 

     

    Morning Listen: Unacknowledged Racism In The Leafy Suburbs

    Check out this fascinating American RadioWorks interview titled Race in Suburban Schools, featuring L’Heureux Lewis-McCoy talking about his look at one Midwestern suburban school district that illustrates the increasing diversity and nagging achievement gaps in the leafy burbs. One striking example Lewis-McCoy describes is how he observes white teachers hold back from correcting the grammar and speech of black and brown students to avoid stigmatizing them. 

     

    Maps: Gap Between Rich & Poor Schools Grows 44 Percent (Now $1,500 Per Kid)

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    Red and orange states are where students in rich districts receive more funds than students in poor districts. via Hechinger Report (The gap between rich and poor schools grew 44 percent over a decade).

    "The richest 25 percent of school districts receive 15.6 percent more funds from state and local governments per student than the poorest 25 percent of school districts, the federal Department of Education pointed out last month (March, 2015).  That’s a national funding gap of $1,500 per student, on average, according to the most recent data, from 2011-12. The gap has grown 44 percent since 2001-02, when a student in a rich district had only a 10.8 percent resource advantage over a student in a poor district."

     

    Campaign 2016: Independent Voters Don't Care Much About Education Issues

    By the looks of this polling data, independent voters care about education just a smidgen less than they care about who gets picked for the Vice President.

    Magazine: Rethinking "Ghetto" Communities -- & Their Schools

    This recent New Yorker article (There Goes the Neighborhood) raises a bunch of important questions about how we think about gentrification and low-income communities that used to be commonly called "ghettos" -- and, by extension, low-income (generally low-performing) schools.

    Scholars have long been sympathetic towards these communities, according to the piece:

    "Scholars who studied the ghetto tended to be motivated by sympathy for its residents, which often resulted in a complicated sort of sympathy for ghettos themselves."

    It could be argued that some of the same emotions have been on display when it comes to the low-income, generally low-performing school.

    However public opinion has changed dramatically.

    "Where the ghetto once seemed a menace, threatening to swallow the city like an encroaching desert, now it often appears, in scholarly articles and the popular press, as an endangered habitat."

    The reality may be, however, that displacements from gentrification are not be as widespread as is commonly thought. That's because underlying mobility rates are already relatively high in these communities, as evictions, better opportunities, and other shifts move families in and out of low-income areas.

    In addition, "Gentrification needn’t be zero-sum, because gentrifying neighborhoods may become more densely populated, with new arrivals adding to, rather than supplanting, those currently resident. 

    Sympathetic scholars, recent focus on gentrification, and questions about underlying mobility rates suggest that the common "gentrification = bad" construction that's prevalent right now might warrant some careful rethinking. Perhaps changes to neighborhood schools -- demographic, programmatic, etc. -- shouldn't necessarily be viewed with immediate suspicion. Perhaps gentrification isn't universally bad. 

    Related posts:

    Charts: Teacher Salaries Spread Over Time

    If I'm reading this right, the salary spread for educators (purple) has grown much wider over time. http://ow.ly/RGim302dxqa

    Charts: Overconfident Parents

    Here's the latest evidence that parents' beliefs about how well their schools are doing educating their children differ from NAEP performance evidence.

    Morning Video: Strong Results (Again) For "Becoming A Man"

    "A new study finds a program that works with at-risk young men in Chicago schools reduced overall arrests in the group by 35 percent, violent crime arrests by 50 percent and boosted on-time high school graduation for participants by 19 percent." via WTTW Chicago Public Television (Program for At-Risk Youth Cuts Arrests by 35 Percent)

    Charts: States Flee Common Assessments To Save Common Core

    image from educationnext.org"As of May 2016, just six states planned to implement the PARCC-designed assessment in the 2016-17 academic year. SBAC ... retains 14 states that plan to use the full test." via Education Next.

    Maps: Las Vegas Teachers Absent More Than State/National Averages

    Check out the absentee rates around massive Clark County, Nevada, and read the story here

     

    Maps: Nearly 200 "Island" Districts Segregate School Communities

    Reform critics like to talk about big social issues like poverty, or focus on reform challenges like racial segregation in charter schools, but downplay ignore structural issues in public education like school assignment policies and district boundaries.

    It's not just attendance zones and school assignment policies within districts that contribute to segregation and school inequality. According to a new report from EdBuild, school district boundaries themselves play a dramatic role in "segregating communities and separating low-income kids from educational opportunity." The most vivid examples of this effect are "island" districts entirely surrounded by other school districts of vastly different means.

    "The way we fund schools in the United States creates incentives for communities to segregate along socioeconomic lines in order to preserve local wealth. In so doing, communities create arbitrary borders that serve to lock students into, or out of, opportunity. This reality is especially glaring in the case of island school districts that are entirely surrounded by single districts of very different means."

    While there are nearly 200 examples nationwide, the report highlights examples in Oakland, Freehold NJ, and Columbus OH.

     

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    Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in This Week In Education are strictly those of the author and do not reflect the opinions or endorsement of Scholastic, Inc.